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Lalibela: 

historical name Roha

Lalībela, historical name Roha,  religious and pilgrimage centre, north-central Ethiopia. Roha, capital of the Zague dynasty for about 300 years, was renamed for its most distinguished monarch, Lalībela (late 12th–early 13th century), who according to tradition built the 11 monolithic churches for which the place is famous. The churches, designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1978, were hewn out of solid rock (entirely below ground level) in a variety of styles. Generally, trenches were excavated in a rectangle, isolating a solid granite block. The block was then carved both externally and internally, the work proceeding from the top downward.

 

he churches are arranged in two main groups, connected by subterranean passageways. One group, surrounded by a trench 36 feet (11 metres) deep, includes House of Emmanuel, House of Mercurios, Abba Libanos, and House of Gabriel, all carved from a single rock hill. House of Medhane Alem (“Saviour of the World”) is the largest church, 109 feet (33 metres) long, 77 feet (23 metres) wide, and 35 feet (10 metres) deep. House of Giorgis, cruciform in shape, is carved from a sloping rock terrace. House of Golgotha contains Lalībela’s tomb, and House of Mariam is noted for its frescoes. The interiors were hollowed out into naves and given vaulted ceilings.​


The expert craftsmanship of the Lalībela churches has been linked with the earlier church of Debre Damo near Aksum and tends to support the assumption of a well-developed Ethiopian tradition of architecture. Emperor Lalībela had most of the churches constructed in his capital, Roha, in the hope of replacing ancient Aksum as a city of Ethiopian preeminence. Restoration work in the 20th century indicated that some of the churches may have been used originally as fortifications and royal residences.The churches attract thousands of pilgrims during the major holy day celebrations and are tended by Coptic priests. The town also serves as a market centre for the Amhara people. Pop. (2007 est.) 15,363.





Lalibela of Ethiopia


St. Lalibela of Ethiopia was a late 12th and early 13th century emperor of Ethiopia credited with the building of the rock-hewn churches of Roha, which was later renamed after the Saint. St. Lalibela is commemorated by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church on 12 Sene (June 19)


St. Lalibela was a member of Ethiopia's Zagwe dynasty born in the 1150s to Zan Siyum, a brother of Emperor Yimrihanne Kristos. At the time of his birth Harbay, his half-brother, was emperor, but the Saint's mother named him Lalibela ('the bees acknowledge his supremacy' in Agew) because after his birth a swarm of bees surrounded him, signifying in that time that he would become a ruler. In part because of this prophecy, which made his brother Harbay jealous of him, when St. Lalibela matured he left the world to become a hermit in the mountainous northern region of Tigre.


While in Tigre St. Lalibela met his future wife, Mesqel Kibra ('glory of the Cross'), after which he undertook a difficult pilgrimage to the Holy Land, which were then occupied by the Roman Catholic Crusaders. While St. Lalibela was traveling to and in the Holy Land his brother sent emissaries to Rome, possibly in response to an offer by Pope Alexander III of an alliance between the West and the isolated Ethiopian Empire. When Lalibela returned to Ethiopia he marched with his supporters on Roha, where Harbay abdicated and recognized his brother as emperor. It is possible that the ease of the Saint's rise to power was caused by the opposition of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church to Harbay's favorable response to Rome's overtures.


At his enthronement St. Lalibela took the name Gebre Mesqel ('servant of the Cross'). He became known throughout the empire for his generosity to all who approached him and his voluntary embrace of poverty in his own personal life. Despite the internal opposition within the empire to the Zagwe from members of the old imperial family in Tigre and Shewa and pressures from the empire's Muslim enemies to the east and pagan enemies to the northwest St. Lalibela became known as the greatest emperor of the Zagwe.In his relations with Egypt St. Lalibela sought to maintain peace between the two countries, a policy which paid off after Saladdin's reconquest of Jerusalem when the sultan intervened in a dispute in favor of the Ethiopian monks in the city. The positive relations established between Ethiopia and Egypt enabled the Coptic and Ethiopian Orthodox Churches to maintain closer communication and also allowed the new metropolitan appointed during St. Lalibela's reign to leave for Ethiopia without any interference from the Egyptian government.


The most enduring monument to St. Lalibela's greatness are the churches he had built in his capital, Roha. The emperor is said to have had a vision in which he was commanded to build a new Jerusalem in Ethiopia and was given the design of the rock-hewn churches. The churches represent the height of Ethiopian Orthodox ecclesiastical architecture and are in the tradition of numerous other rock-hewn and cave churches in northern and central Ethiopia. Since St. Lalibela's death his former capital has become a major pilgrimage center of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, many of whose members are so awed by the churches that they believe they were carved out of the earth by the angels.

After the emperor's repose he was buried in one of his churches in Roha, where he remains to this day. His hand cross is also preserved in the holy city to the present day.

  • The Lord's Prayer in Ge'ez - YouTube4:10

ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX CROSS


Ethiopia is the second First Christian nation in the world. The Churches become official religion in the IVth century.


There are numerous forms of Ethiopian Crosses according to the region where the city in which we are situated.


The three main styles of cross are:

  • The cross of Lalibela,

  • the cross of Gondar and

  • the cross of Axum



 Icons have long been a tradition in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, as they are an important visual representation of the scriptures. Painting of books and manuscripts started as early as the 6thCentury CE, though mass production of icons didn’t start until the 15th century, after a change in church liturgy occured. There were icons produced prior to that, but none have survived. The most productive time for Ethiopian Orthodox icons was the 17th and 18th centuries. “Thematically, Ethiopian iconography was strongly influenced by Byzantine models; later Ethiopian art also reveals the influence of Western religious painting. Nonetheless, the vibrancy and simplicity of Ethiopian iconography mark out a distinctive style in the history of Christian art.” Like in Western churches, patrons paid for commissions to create the icons and donated them to the churches. “Stored with other sacred objects, icons were displayed on holy days and in public processionals. [This is also the case with the Tabots, the replicas of the 10 Commandments, which each church has in their sanctuary.] With the donors’ hopes of obtaining divine intercession, images of Mary, the Mother of God, are understandably the dominant theme.” Large icons were created to be used in church processions, while smaller ones were created to be carried around by individuals such as the ones in Glenna’s collection.

            Each icon is painted on either paneled wood or goat skin. They have a base layer of white paint called gesso, which is put down before any actual image painting starts. Originally the paints came from natural sources, such as minerals, plants and clay. Later on, because of their extensive trade with European countries, the artists used manufactured paints.

Although Ethiopian and Byzantine iconography is very similar there are some differences. The Ethiopian icons use a wider variety of bright colors, there is no use of gold in the backgrounds, there is rarely any text and the saints and other holy figures frequently have painted rather than golden halos. They also tend to depict the Trinity, which is not encouraged in the ByzantineChurch. “Among the more favored subjects of Ethiopian iconography are the Flight from Egypt (as a reminder that Africa sheltered the Holy Family); St. George, the patron of Ethiopia, who is often seen close to Mary; Mary and the Christ Child flanked by angels; St. Michael the Archangel; the Nine Saints, who are often depicted in a circle; various events from the lives of Mary and Jesus; and Ethiopian saints, especially Takla Haymanot from the 13th century.”